What Happens to Intellectual Property During Bankruptcy

Intellectual Property during a Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

Many of you would recognize the name CBGB from t-shirts and slogans, all without knowing that the name originated from a legendary music venue in Manhattan. Even more interesting, the club has been closed since 2006. Yet, the investors who purchased it bought it for the naming rights, not the club. These rights, called intellectual property rights, are now in the midst of a Chapter 11 Bankruptcy filed on behalf of the investors. So the question is, what happens to those intellectual property rights during a Chapter 11 Bankruptcy?

In a typical Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the case is administered in the following way: 1) rejection or assumption of executory contracts; (2) sale of assets; (3) claims adjudication; (4) litigation. For this article, we are only concerned with the first issue, the executory contract. A contract is considered to be executory if there is still an outstanding obligation by one or both parties to the contract, of which the terms were the consideration for entering into the contract. Bankruptcy Courts have found that non-exclusive licenses of intellectual property can not be assumed and assigned unless there is consent. Everett Systems, Inc. v. Cadtrack Corp, 89 F.3d (9th Cir. 1996).

Stepping back for a moment, let’s put ourselves in the shoes of the person who has licensed intellectual property from a licensor who subsequently becomes bankrupt. In this scenario, when the license is an exclusive one, then it is treated as an executory contract. The licensor cannot sell those rights to anyone else, no more than the licensee can stop paying royalties. See Encino Bus. Management, Inc. v. Prize Frize, Inc. In those cases where the license is non-exclusive, Section 365(n) of the Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Code states that if the trustee or the Chapter 11 Debtor rejects “an executory contract under which the debtor is a licensor of a right to intellectual property”, the licensee under the contract may:

1) treat the license as terminated and assert a claim for breach of contract; or

2) elect to retain its rights to the use of the intellectual property as such rights existed immediately before the commencement of the bankruptcy case, or the duration of the contract. 11 U.S.C. 365(n)(1)(B)

Thus, no matter what they choose the the licensee must be allowed to exercise either of its rights, and it must continue to make payments for the rights it is licensing for the duration of the contract.

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What’s the Difference Between Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation?

Simply put, energy efficiency is a technological concern. Energy conservation is a human concern. For example, you can make furnaces and air conditioners more efficient by improving the technology that governs their operation. But people are responsible for turning the thermostat to 68 degrees instead of 75 degrees.

Yes, this is an oversimplification. But it makes an important point. Technology can take us only so far as we attempt to keep energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions down. People have to take responsibility for using the technology wisely.

The focus on energy efficiency and energy conservation has been around for quite a while, at least since the 1970s when the oil crisis had gasoline and heating oil prices skyrocketing and cars lined up at the pump. A physicist named Amory Lovins introduced the idea of negawatts, which contradicted the notion that, to meet energy requirements, you have to generate more energy. He thought you could meet those needs by using energy more efficiently, not just providing more.

From the technological point of view, making homes more energy-efficient is hugely important in reducing energy consumption. The steps toward greater efficiency can be pretty simple. For instance, you can exchange an incandescent light bulb with a fluorescent bulb and get the same light output for 13 watts that before required 60 watts.

Of course, your furnace and air conditioner use the most energy in your home, so they make good targets for action that can improve energy efficiency. One way to improve heating and cooling efficiency is to make sure your furnace and air conditioner are inspected each year and necessary repairs are made.

Another solution is to exchange your older-model furnace and air conditioner for a newer version. Today, manufacturers are producing units of very high efficiency that are able to pay for themselves in energy savings in a remarkably short time.

You can easily find out how energy-efficient a new furnace or air conditioner might be.

Air conditioners are rated by the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). The SEER is computed from the cooling output in British Thermal Units (BTUs) during a typical cooling season divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours during the season. The higher the SEER rating the more efficient the air conditioner.

Furnace efficiency is measured in the percentage of fuel – for example, natural gas – that is turned into usable energy – that is, heat. Thus and 80 percent energy efficiency rating is better than a 70 percent energy efficiency rating.

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Golfing, Grand Kids & Travel – Plan NOW For Your Retirement

In the world of retirement planning, there is one option that many are considering in the form of deferred compensation plans. This type of plan will allow an employee to postpone receiving wages and income for a period of time. While this might seem risky, it is the employer’s responsibility to keep and manage this money in a special fund unit where the employee is no longer working with the organization. One of the greatest benefits to deferred compensations plans is that taxes on this money are not paid until it is withdrawn from the plan and not during the period of earning. It is important to remember that employers will use broad tax regulations during the structuring of this type of plan. One aspect of non-qualified retirement plans is that they do not usually include employee contributions, and are solely based on the employee’s gross income. This means that an employee can build their retirement without paying taxes until the money is taken out.

While non-qualified retirement plans are considered painless, there are a number of considerations that an individual needs to be aware of before he or she uses this type of retirement model. The first consideration is that this type of plan is not retroactive. This means that it can only be based on an individual’s current income withholding. Because most plans have very specific maturation dates, it is not possible for an individual to borrow or withdraw money from this type of plan. There are some plans that will require specific events to take place before an individual can receive their funds. The last consideration is that this type of retirement plan is not protected from creditors if an individual owes an outstanding debt.


Qualified retirement plans or structured retirement plans are required to comply with certain government regulations. An individual can establish this type of plan through either an employer, bank, or financial institution. It is important to remember that the IRS has special codes that detail provisions regarding qualified retirement plans. One advantage to qualified retirement plans is that they are eligible for special tax considerations.

There are two main types of qualified plans. The first is employer based in the form of pensions or profit sharing programs and each must comply with certain government regulations that grant the employer certain tax privileges. One advantage for the employer is that they may be able to deduct any contributions to a pension as a business expense. The employee will have an advantage as well in the form of not being liable for taxes until he or she retires and withdraws the funds. It is vital to remember that depending on the tax structure and the employee’s income, he or she, after retirement, will generally be required to pay taxes on any amount withdrawn from his or her plan.

Individual retirement plans better known as IRAs are a popular options for both the self-employed and those who want additional protection during retirement. It has become one of the most popular individual qualified retirement plans, and it allows a person to deposit a portion of his or her income into a plan without being required to pay taxes. As with other retirement plans, the individual will be required to pay taxes once the funds are withdrawn. One aspect of an IRA is that due allow tax-deductible contributions only up to $4000 per year, unless the person is over the age of 50; in this case, the contribution can be higher.

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Improve Your Poor Credit Score and Secure Yourself a Loan

So you are thinking of getting some extra money to make some urgent home repairs, the porch door needs replacing, along with a new hot water system. Unfortunately you do not have the money in the bank, but neither do you have a secure porch door or any constant hot water.

Have you considered personal loans? A lot of people take out personal loans for this type of repair. Car repairs and even holidays are used by people with their newly acquired finances. Most people have heard that a poor credit score is not a good thing (However even those that have a poor financial history can still get loans). But how do you make a good rating?

One of thing major pieces of advice from experts, before you apply for finance it is best to get a credit report completed from a reputable source. This will give you an idea of the chance of getting your application approved. In the United States of America there are three levels of credit rating, basically the higher it is the better it is.

An excellent rating is above 760, a good rating would be between 700 and 759 and a poor rating would be between 640 to 699. if you are at the top end, 760 and above then there is no point in making your rating any better. However with other ratings it is worth trying to improve as it will help your chances of succeeding in the application.

There does seem to be a bit of a chicken and egg situation sometimes, you need finance but have a poor score,but to improve you need a lender to give you a chance. Well, luckily there are things that you and your family if you have one, can do to improve your rating.

Having a poor rating does not mean you have to be stuck with it, starting to pay the bills on time instead of late or not at all will start to get you on the right path. Some lenders will still give applicants loans even with a low score, but the total given will be lower than usually and the percentage rate will be considerably higher. So you will pay more over the period of the finance.

Families can help too. If a member of your family has a good rating then some credit card companies can add you to that family members credit card as an authorized user, this will help with any poor credit score. Also having a family member with a good rating co-sign the loan could help you get what you need.

Finding the correct lender for your score is a good way to make sure that you are getting what you deserve, if you have a high score you deserve some of the best deals on the market. Instead of going to your bank or card company you can go online and search for a matching company. Companies like this are a good place go to make sure you achieve the best deal.

What are a matching company and what do they do? You enter your details on their online program and your information will be fed to several of their approved lenders, in turn the lenders will then return to the matching company with a list of loans that they are able to offer.

Once the offers come back it is then up to the applicant to choose one and complete all the necessary paperwork. A check will then be received within a matter of days and your new boiler and door fitted soon after.

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Payment Options for Shopping All the Way

Everyone is busy. Busy in shopping online and in the malls. Popular online portals are breaking and making new sale records! All thanks to the convenience and the availability of easy payment options and funds!

Here are few of the factors that are making online businesses a success

Credit Cards: A credit card is plastic money. It is one of the easiest form in which a person gets a personal loan.

All online portals as well as retailers in malls accept credit cards issued by various banks.
Online payment becomes very simple and safe, thanks to the one time passwords generated for such transactions.
A PIN is sufficient for shopping using a credit card at any retail store.

Personal loans for shopping: When we apply for a personal loan, we don’t have to provide the financier with the details of what we want the loan for.

Thus these days’ personal loans are being used to finance shopping.
They can also be used as wedding loans, vacation loans and educational loans.

Payment Processing: As far as payment processing is concerned, the following factors matter to both the consumer and the online retailer.

Uncomplicated manoeuvring on website: It is important for the payment process to be step-by-step and easy to understand. Most websites work on this section very carefully and thus the online shopping experience is satisfactory.

Processing Costs: Processing costs matter to the retailers. More the processing fees they have to pay to providers of payment gateways like Visa, the lesser are their margins. So to have an effective business the processing costs need to be low.
Number of payment options: Multiple payment options should be available for the customer to make payment. This makes the shopping a convenient proposition.
Time taken to process transactions: Processing time not only tests your patience but sometimes also the strength of your internet connection!

Cash on Delivery: This is also known as “collection on delivery.” This is a very popular mode of making payments for shopping in the developing world.

It enhances impulse purchases.
A credit card is not an essential possession for the buyer.
The buyer can check the quality of the product and then pay

So this festive season, do not hesitate to shop and to gift! The availability of funds for shopping is not difficult anymore. Also the convenience of online shopping has brought various retailers to our doorstep. So let us shop all the way!

An easy way of shopping is using a credit card. It forms an integral part of most people’s financial planning. When used in the right manner, it helps reduce financial liability and optimizes financial resources.

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Are Online Personal Loans Good For People With Bad Credit?

While the rise of online lending in itself makes it more convenient for people to apply for finance, is this development a good thing for those who are already struggling? There are companies out there who charge expensive annual percentage rates (APRs), leaving many people in more trouble than when they first started.

But it doesn’t have to be this way. Over the last few years, online lending has earned itself a bad reputation. The internet leaves many people vulnerable to fraud, so you should always exercise caution when inputting your financial details. The best way to make sure your information remains safe is to find a secure, reliable lending platform.

There is an unfair irony attached to lending today. Those with bad credit are often led to believe they have no financial options if they have made mistakes in the past, often making their situations seem more desperate than they actually are. This can result in people making bad decisions and can lead to borrowing through unstable sources.

Meanwhile, any lenders that do accept you with bad credit will charge extortionate interest rates because of your history, making it more difficult for you to meet your monthly repayment obligations – thus worsening your situation. This is a trap that many people fall into, and it gives online installment lenders a bad name.

However, this doesn’t need to be the case. If you can find yourself a reliable lending platform, you will be connected to a secure network of trustworthy lenders who can offer sensible solutions to your borrowing needs. Many of these lenders will assess your application, even if your credit file isn’t perfect or your income is lower than average.

Instead of (or in some cases, as well as) running credit checks, these lenders will take other factors into consideration, including your income and employment circumstances, and how long you have lived at your current address. They may even ask for references they can contact who will vouch for your character personally.

Even those who receive benefits as a form of income will be able to apply, giving everyone a fair and carefully considered chance of borrowing money. In these cases, applicants won’t be accepted for higher loans than they can afford to pay back, and interest rates will be low, meaning there is a better chance of managing repayments.

If you have poor credit and need to borrow money, consider a personal installment loan, but make sure the APR is advertised between 5.99% and 35.99%. There should also be a number of options in terms of flexible repayment, offering you the chance to pay the money back anywhere between six months and six years, depending on what you can afford to pay per month.

Small, carefully considered personal loans could actually help you build a financial profile making you eligible for better future borrowing. As long as the lender is responsible, and offers reasonable interest rates, online lending platforms can actually give people with more opportunities than many other lenders in terms of improving their situation.

With this in mind, personal loans can be beneficial to those hoping to improve their credit score, but only if some caution is exercised by both parties, and you only apply to borrow an amount you can afford to pay back.

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Five Reasons for Refusal of a Personal Loan

Don’t you wish personal finance were a mandatory course in college? Unfortunately, too many of us learn by mistake. When you need a personal loan and are rejected, you might be baffled as to what went wrong- and how to fix it. Here are some clues.


No credit is a situation where you have never used credit and therefore have no credit history for the bank to review. They have no way of making an educated decision on whether or not you will pay back a personal loan based on your credit history. No credit is worse than bad credit. Qualifying for and making regular payments on these types of introductory forms of credit can overcome a “no credit” score:

· Student Loans

· Secured credit card (includes a down payment amount)

· Being added to a parent’s or spouses good credit: card, car loan, etc.


Low credit takes on several forms. If you’re using more than 30% of your allowable debt, it can negatively impact your score. Too many inquiries from shopping around for loans will also hit you hard. Lapses in payment, defaults, or bankruptcies are giant red flags and can take a long time to rebuild from.

Other things that lenders may look at are whether or not you have sizeable assets should you default on the loan. They also check to see if your debts are diversified or if you are only carrying one type of debt.


Proof of income is generally required when applying for a personal loan. If you are unemployed or underemployed, it can work against you in the loan approval process. Lenders may also require a work history to see how long you have been with your current employer, and to determine if you typically have job stability. Frequent job loss or change will tell a creditor that your payments may not be reliable.


Believe it or not, your application can be rejected due to your proposed purpose for the loan. Financial institutions have the right to set up the parameters surrounding their disbursements and can accept or reject your application based on what you want to use the money for.


If you’ve defaulted on debt before, your name may be put on a list of whom not to loan to,’ also known as a “Blacklist.” This will follow you around for a long time and is difficult to erase. If you do resolve the debt issues, get documents to prove the resolution.

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How Can A Personal Loan Improve Your Credit Score?

When it comes to a personal loan, you have to first learn to use it responsibly. Because if you miss a repayment, your credit score will be impacted adversely. And remember, that a credit score is an indicator of how well you manage your personal finances. Also, it plays a defining role when you apply for any kind of loan – secured and unsecured. It is suggested to apply for a loan slightly larger than what is needed so that you will be assured to have enough money to pay all bills necessary and still have some money left over to ensure that your bank account stays current.

A credit score can be defined as a number which reflects the financial situation of a person. If the person is well-off when it comes to financial matters, then he or she is said to have a high credit score. On the other hand, if a person is the exact opposite of this, then they possess a low credit score. There are a lot of factors that are considered by financial institutions for the purpose of evaluating a person’s credit score – usually, the credit scores of people vary from 300 to about 850.

A personal loan is a type of loan that is given by digital lenders, banks and credit unions to aid you in your plans, be it starting a small business, or making a big purchase. Personal loans tend to have an interest rate(s) lower than the credit cards; however, they can also be put to use for combining several credit card debts together into one monthly lower-cost payment.

Now, your credit score is built by keeping in mind various parameters from your credit reports. These reports serve the purpose of trailing your history of utilization of the credit across the duration of seven years. These credit reports are comprised of information, including how much credit you have utilized to date, the type of credit in your possession, the age of one’s credit accounts, whether one has put in for bankruptcy or liens filed against them, actions of debt collections taken against them, one’s total open lines of credit as well as recent inquiries for hard credit.

Like any other type of credit, personal loans are very capable of affecting your credit score. This can be done through the process of applying and withdrawing a personal loan. If you are curious as to how personal loans can end up affecting your credit, then read on to find out more about the context. There are many ways in which your credit can be affected by personal loans and some of them are listed below:

The ratio of your debt-to-income and loan

Debt-to-income ratio is considered to be the measure of your amount of income that you spend on the debt repayments. In the case of lenders, the amount of income that you receive is said to be one of the major factors proving that you are able to repay your loan.

Some of the lenders have come up with their own debt-to-income ratio so that their proprietary credit scores may make use of it in the form of a credit consideration. Do not fall into the kind of mindset that possessing a high amount of a loan would hurt your credit. The most damage it can do is raise the ratio of your debt-to-income so that you won’t be able to apply for loans anymore without it getting rejected or denied.

Paying loans on time will make credit scores soar

The moment your loan is approved, you have to make sure that you settle the payments of each month on time and in full. Delay in repayment may significantly impact the state of your credit score. However, on the other hand, if you make the payments on time every month, then your credit score will soar high, leading to an overall good score. This will not only make your name to the preferred borrower’s list, but it will prove to be beneficial for you in the long run.

Since your payment history is comprised of almost 35% of your credit score, paying loans on time is essential in cases like these so that your credit score can maintain a positive status.

Variety is built into your credit type

There are about five factors that are responsible for determining your credit score. These are composed of the payment history, the length of the credit history, the utilization ratio of the credit, the credit mix and new inquiries of the credit in accordance with FICO®.

The credit mix only accounts for about 35% of your total credit score, whereas when it comes to a personal loan you can have a varying mix of the credit types. This mix of all types of credit is viewed at a high level of approval by the creditors and lenders.

Origination fee charged by loans

Most of the lenders end up charging you an origination fee. This fee cannot be avoided at any cost and is instantly taken off from the amount of the loan payment. The amount of origination fees depends upon the amount of the loan you are about to borrow. Late payments can lead to an overdraft of fees and late expenses. Therefore, make sure that you pay complete repayment for each month before the deadline.

Avoiding penalties when it comes to payments

Some of the credit lenders tend to charge an additional fee if you end up paying your part of the loan earlier than the agreed date. This is because they are looking for moderate amounts of interest on your loan. Now, seeing that you have paid off your part of the loan before time, they will miss out on that interest that they could have possibly made if you had not cleared the debt soon enough before the deadline.

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